Ressources

A glossary of German Longsword fencing terms with their pronounciation

By Andreas ARNOLD (Compagnie Dagorlad)

Abbreviations and conventions

a: adjective n: common noun N: proper noun T: technique name, or specific longsword terminology v: verb

Nouns are preceded by their definite article, in the nominative case, so that their gender can be inferred (der: masculine, die: feminine, das: neutral). They are then followed, between parentheses, by the plural. The plural is either given entirely, or only with the relevant suffix. The dash (-) means that the plural is the same as the singular. The empty parentheses () mean that the plural does not exist for a given word.

Bibliography

[arma] German/Italian to English fencing glossary from the ARMA, http://www.thearma.org/terms2.htm

[higgins] A glossary of German fencing from now defunt website Higgins Sword. The site can be accessed through web.archive.org here: http://web.archive.org/web/20101031193227, http://www.higginssword.org/guild/study/glossary/index.html#striking_around

[hroar] A post from HROARR on the Rose by Paurenfeyndt, Mair et Meÿer. http://www.hroarr.com/the-rose-and-the-pentagram

[leo] Leo German/English dictionary, http://dict.leo.org

[Lombart] Bernard Lombard, Petit dictionnaire éclectique des termes d'escrime v. 3.2, novembre 2005 http://www.synec-doc.net/escrime/dico_escrime32.pdf

[Tetraptych] Tétraptyque des glossateurs de Johannes Lichtenauer, ARDAMHE, http://ardamhe.free.fr/biblio/Tetraptyque.pdf

[Wiktenauer] The HEMA wiki, wiktenauer.com

A

Alber, n. Listen The Fool's guard. Linked to adjective albern: foolish, stupid.

Abgehen, v. Listen Literally, to go away. To refuse your opponent's try to bind at your sword by displacing the blade away. In modern fencing terminology: dérobement.

Ansetzen, v. Listen Literally "to set [the blade] at", i.e. to stick the point at your opponent's chest or face.

Absetzen, abseczen, v. Listen A parry that sets away your opponent's blade while thrusting at your opponent.

Ablaufen, v. Listen Literally, "to flow away" (like water). After the bind, to become weak in your grip and take profit of your opponent's momentum so that your blade is pushed away and down, thus allowing you to attack more nimbly to the other side.

Abzug, n, fem. The retreat, above all in Joachim Meÿer's doctrine.

Andreas, n. A German master of the longsword named only by his first name by Hans von Speyer, MS M.I.29 (1491). It could be Andres Juden (who could himself be Andre Liegnizer), or maybe Andre Paurenfeyndt, or a third, unknown master (this is a very common German first name).

B

Büffel, n, masc. Listen Litt. "buffalo", a disparaging name for a fencer who only uses brute force and not technique.

Buffeln, v. Listen To act as a buffalo.

Bruch (Brüche), Pruch, n, masc. Listen A break, or a counter to a technique.

Brechen, v. Listen To break; in the context, it means breaking your opponent's technique.

Beilager, das Beylager, n, neut. Listen A secondary guard, considered as less essential as the Hauptlager, mostly a stance to invite your opponent to strike you, or a transition between two other guards. Langenort, Eisenport, Hangetort, Sprechfenster, Schlüssel, Nebenhut, Schrankhut, Zornhut.

Blossfechten, n, neut. Listen To fence without protection. See Harnischfechten, Rossfechten.

Binden, n, neut. Listen The bind, i.e. any position where your blade is crossed and in contact with your opponent's.

Bloß, a. Listen Naked. This qualifies an opening, that is, any place not protected by your sword.

C

Czwerchau, n, masc. Listen See Zwechau.

Czornhau, n, masc. Listen See Zornhau.

D

Duplieren, T, neut. Listen The doubling. After having performed an Oberhau stopped by your opponent's blade, while keeping the bind (binden), to hit your opponent's head on the opposite side on which you initally wanted to hit. See also Mutieren.

Durchlaufen, T, masc. Listen The walking, or the running-through. To run towards your opponent while protecting your head from his blows, taking him over then hiting him on his side and back, or eventually starting to grapple.

Döbringer (Codex), N. Listen Hanko Döbriger was a priest and a fencing master (clearly not incompatible jobs). He probably lived around the turn of the XVth century. He was long held as the author of Ms 3227a, Codex Döbringer, although he is only one of four co-authors (with Andres Juden, Jobs von der Nissen and Nicklass Preussen) of a brief section on the longsword adding techniques to another longer, anonymous glosa of Lichtenauer's poem. Codex Döbringer, is a Hausbuch (common book), which contains several topics like alchemy, magic formulas, recipes for painting pigments, buccal hygiene, fencing, grappling. There is also a calendar covering the years 1390-1495, which could a clue that the book was written in 1389, which is only an assumption. It is very hard to tell when this book dates to, and if it was written while master Lichtenauer was still alive.

Durchwechseln, n, masc. Listen The "changing trough". During a bind, to switch the side on which your sword binds with your opponent's by letting the blade go under your opponent's. In modern fencing terms: a dégagement.

Düssack, n, masc. Listen A kind of big knife or saber coming from Eastern Europe (the name comes from czech tesák). The German name refers to a training weapon in leather or wood which resembles the steel equivalent mentioned above. Typically it was used to work Messer techniques; the guard and the grip would be only made by a hole in the device, allowing to grip it while staying well protected.

Dolch, n, masc. Listen The dagger (generic term).

Degen, n, masc. Listen A sword, rather of a later type made only for thrusting and not those used in the style of Lichtenauer.

E

Eisenport, die Ysne Port, die Ysni Pfort, n, fem. Listen The guard of the Iron Door. This is a direct translation of the italian Porta di Ferro as exposed by Fiore de'i Liberi and Filippo Vadi. In a woodcut in one of Meÿer's treaty, the right foot is forward, the point is at eye level, the hands are held at hip level, the sword is globally held up at a 45 degrees angle. For other modern analyses [arma], the guard is synonymous with (Alber). However, in the Bolognese fencing tradition, established at the beginning of the XVth century (but for which the first treatises that came to us date back to the 1530s), the porta di ferro has several variants: the stretta version (tight) as in Meÿer's, the alta version and the larga version where the point is low as with Alber.

Einhorn, n, fem. Listen The guard of the unicorn, where the sword is like Ochs but held upwards (in contrast to the guardia d'alicorno in the italian Bolognese tradition, with dall'Agocchie, where it points downwards).

einlaufen, v. To walk into, to run into. To close in to your opponent for the purpose of grappling.

Egnolff, Egenolph (Christian), N. Listen German printer (July 26, 1502 - February 9, 1555) established in Francfort-am-Main. He authored a Fechtbuch: Der Altenn Fechter anfengliche Kunst (Possible translation: The ancient art of fencing, for beginners). The book is a compilation of Paurenfeyndt for the longsword and the stick, of Lecküchner for the Messer, of Liegniczer for sword and buckler, and dagger; but it also contains original plays of grappling and dagger. It had three editions: 1531, 1537 and a posthumous one in 1558 by his heirs, probably to pay up some remaining debts.

F

Feder, n, fem. Listen Literally, the "feather". It was a longsword used for training and for competitive, friendly combats held during Fechtschule. Feders are thinner and lighter than a sharp longsword used for actual combat, and it had a flared ricasso to protect hands. The type is visible in XVth centuries and used probably up to the XVIIIth century. The name Feder is probably linked to the crest of the Freifechter guild of fencers. These weapons are also known as Fechtfeder today.

Federschwert, n, neut. Listen Neologism for Feder.

Fechtbuch, n, neut. Listen Literally the "fight-book" (das Fechten being originally a generic term for "fighting", not only with swords but with any handheld weapons or for grappling). A treatise on the art of using weapons or grappling.

Fechtschule, n, fem. Listen A fencing tournament during the XVIth century. Literally: a fencing school.

Fühlen, n, neut. Listen The "feeling" i.e. the tactile return of the pressure of the swords, when they are bound.

Flügel, T, masc. Listen Technique from Paurenfeyndt: to advance the right foot while striking an Oberhau from Vom Tag to the left ear of the opponent, then striking an Unterhau while stepping to the left, and finishing by a strike on the head. Literraly the "wing", translated by "la volée" in the French version of PaurenfeyndtPaurenfeyndt (published 1538), that is, the "flight" or the "volley". See also die drey Hewe.

Freifechter, N, fem. Listen A brotherhood of fencers grounded in 1570 in Prague (Freifechter von der Feder zum Greigenfels). It held a high reputation in the Holy Empire, equal to that of the Marxbrüder. Their crest shows two hands holding a feather, a griffin holding a sword, two crossed swords with wings, and a fencer armed with a Zweihänder; said crest being at the origin of the name Feder (see that word).

Federfechter, N, fem. Listen See Freifechter.

Fehler, n, masc. Listen Literally, "the mistake". A feint.

G

Gayszlen, T, neut. Listen The whipping. Technique shown in Talhoffer (Codex Iconografico 394a, 6v, de 1467) consisting in striking your opponent's leg with your longsword, held only with your left hand at the pommel. The term Gayszl (actuellement Geißel): le fouet.

Goliath, N. Listen Treatise (Ms. German Quarto 2020) written between 1510 and 1520, probably ordered by emperor Maximilian I, containing the works of several masters in the tradition of Lichtenauer, with grappling, pole weapons, armored fighting, longsword fencing. It is called "Goliath" because the fight between David and Goliath is represented on the inside cover.

Gladiatoria, N. Listen Series of German fencing treatises from the XVth century, existing in parallel to the Lichtenauer tradition, but which do not seem to be linked to it: Ms KK5013, Ms German Quarto 16, Ms U860.F46 1450, Codex Guelf 78.2 August.2 et Ms CI. 23842. There could be a sixth book which is today lost. These books all follow a similar structure which describes a hypothetical judicial duel beginning with pole weapons and shields, switching to longsword fighting then dagger, either standing or on the ground. These books could be possible source of another German martial school.

Gesellschaft Lichtenauers, N, fem. Listen The Society of Lichtenauer, is a XVth century brotherhood of masters at arms, consisting in 17 people named by Paulus Kal in manuscript Cgm 1507 of 1460 (the four authors of Codex Döbringer are not part of them). [wiktenauer]

Gehlitz, Gehilcz, n, fem. Listen The hilt of a sword.

Grüblein, n. Ringen im Grüblein means "grappling in the (little) pit" (Grübel being cognate to the English word "grave"). This is a game where the attacker jumps on one foot and the defender must keep one of his feet in a little hole (a few inches deep), the diameter of said hole corresponding to the length of a foot. If one of the two falls, or if the defender is pushed outside of the hole, he loses. The game is mentioned the first time in das Buch von Füssringen (the book on grappling with the leg) (end of the XVth century) and taken up during the XVIth century by Fabian von Auerswald and Paulus Hector Mair. [wiktenauer]

H

Hausbuch, n, neut. Listen A "common book", i.e. a manuscript compilation of excerpts of various treatises and books that came through the hands of one single author. Codex Döbringer is a Hausbuch.

Hau, Haw, n, masc. The strike, that is, the strike made with the cutting edge with the sword, cognate to the English hew.

drey Hewe, T, fem. Listen The Three Strikes, a technique from Codex Döbringer: an Unterhau from your right side, then an Unterhau from your left, strongly against your opponent's sword by doing an Absetzen, then a third one on the top of your opponent's head, which is the one that must really hit.

Hut, n, fem. The guard, as in, the stance.

Harnischfechten, n, neut. Listen Fencing in the armor.

Halbschwert, a. Listen With the half sword, that is, one hand on the blade, the other on the hilt, using the sword as a stick. This is an efficient way to wield a sword during Harnishfechten, and also sometimes during close combat when doing Blossfechten.

Hauptlager, n, neut. Listen Main guard: Vom Tag, Alber, Ochs, Pflug. These are also known as Grundlager (fundamental guards).

Handarbeit, Handtarbeit, n, fem. Listen The hand work. Actions that one can do during close combat.

I

In Des, indes, n. Listen In the instant, instantly. This is the decisive moment when the defender must react against an action initiated by the opponent. This is a term introduced by Lichtenauer which, in the works of his successors, takes a nearly sacred meaning.

J

Juden (Andres), n. Listen German fencing master of the end of the XIVth century or the beginning of the XVth century. His name indicates he was a jew, which is interesting, since many jobs where forbidden to jews at this time. The man could be Andre Liegniczer. He was one of four co-authors of a short section dedicated to longsword in Codex Döbringer. [wiktenauer]

K

Krieg, n, masc. Listen Literally the "war". Also known as der edle Krieg (the noble war). Moment when the two opponents fight for an opening after the bind.

Krumphau, T, masc. Listen The crooked strike. One of the Meisterhaue.

Kronhut, T, fem. Listen The Crown guard.

Kal (Paulus), N. Listen Fencing master (1420?-1490?) and presumed author of a Fechtbuch, Cgm 1507 from 1460.

Krauthacke, T, fem. Listen The Hoe [Döbringer]. From Eisenport, strike up from the ground then go back down. This can be done several times, once for each step.

Klinge, n, fem. Listen The blade.

Knopf, n, masc. Listen The pommel, literally "the button".

Kunst, n, fem. Listen The art. Die Kunst des Fechtens: the art of fencing, expression sometimes used today, especially in the English-speaking world, to mean the fencing in Lichtenauer's tradition.

Künstlich, a. Listen Artfully, with skill.

Kämpfen, v. Listen To fight.

L

Lichtenauer (Johannes), N. Listen German fencing master, probably originating from the city of Lichtenau (Baden-Würtenberg), who lived during the XIVth, perhaps even the XVth century. He authored a poem, (der Zettel), which details a list of techniques and secret strikes (die Meisterhaue). This poem was then glosated by a long string of fencing masters who claimed to follow Lichtenauer's tradition, up to the XVIth century. The structure of the poem is the basis of all the works following Lichtenauer.

Langenort, T, masc. Listen The long point, a guard where the sword is held horizontally, with fully extended arms, towards the opponent.

Lager, Leger, n, neut. Listen The guard, as a waiting position. Literally, the "camp". A synonym of Hut.

Langschwert, n, neut. Listen The longsword, used with both hands.

M

Meÿer (Joachim), n. Listen A knife maker, fencing master and member of the Brotherhood of the Freifechter during the XVIth century (1537?-1571). He was a citizen of Strasbourg (Alsace),and authored three very detailed fencing treasises on the longsword, Düssack, and a forerunner of rapier (named Rapier in the text, but really more akin to the italian spada da lato): Ms A 4°.2 (from the 1560s), a lost manuscript (1561), and Ms Varia 82 (1570-1571).

Mittelhau, n, masc. Listen The middle cut. An horizontal cut.

Meisterhau, n, masc. Listen The master strike.

Mordhau, T, masc. The Mortal hew, a technique where the pommel is used to hammer the opponent's head. The technique is shown at least in Talhoffer and in Codex Wallerstein.

Mordschlag, T, masc. Listen See Mordhau.

Mair (Paulus Hector), N. Listen A rich civil servant from the city of Augsbourg (1517-1579). His real passion was martial arts. Feeling that the knowledge of martial arts was beginning to be forgotten, he put all his personnal wealth (plus money he embezzled from the city) to collect treatises and to rent the services of a painter and two fencing masters who served as models for a behemoth treatise of more than 500 manuscript folia. There are three versions of the treatise (one in German, one in Latin and one bilingual): Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athetica. Mair was in the end convicted and hung for embezzlement.

Masse, Mosse, n, fem. Listen Measure, or distance.

Mutieren, T, neut. Listen The mutation: after an Oberhau and during the bind, while keeping it, to drive the blade over the opponent's blade [Tétraptyique], on the outside [Ringeck] (i.e. by switching the side of the bind) to strike a lower opening. This technique is called mutation because it trades an initial attack on an upper opening, for a strike on a lower opening.

Marxbrüder, N, fem. Listen Brotherhood of Saint Mark: created during the XVth century possibly by Hans Talhoffer who was almost certainly a member. It became the widest organisation of German fencers during the XVIth century. Emperor Friedrich II granted the guild the monopole to bestow the title of master of the longsword (Meister des langen Schwerts), which was coveted by elite Landsknecht soldiers because it was the key to a doubled salary. This organisation had a rivalry with the Freifechter who appeared later.

Messer, n, neut. Listen Lit. the knife. A falchion. It was a weapon held with one hand, with only one cutting side on the blade, but a guard otherwise similar to a sword (thus making it distinct to a saber). It sometimes had a kind of hook (der Nagel, i.e. the nail), which increased the protection of the hand.

N

Nachreisen, Nachreissen, T, masc. Listen Lit. "the rise after" (reisen being cognate to the English to rise) or "the travel after". This means, to let the opponent strike short and strike at him immediately after.

Nach, N, masc. Listen The After. The time when the initiative of the attack was lost and when one must regain it with a defensive action. See Vor, In Des.

Nagel, n, masc. Listen Lit. the nail. A hook on a Messer or Düssack, which acted as an additional protection of the hand.

Natterzunge, T, fem. Listen The Viper's Tongue. A technique from Codex Döbringer, where one stays in Langenort, then harasses the opponent with several Durchwechseln, ending with a thrust.

Nissen (Jobs von der), n. One of four co-authors of a short section on the longsword in Codex Döbringer.

Nebenhut, T, fem. Listen The close guard. Guard where the blade points at the ground, behind oneself, as after the final position of an Oberhau pushed to its limits. It is analogous to the italian posta coda longa described by Fiore dei Liberi and Filippo Vadi or the posta coda longa e distesa in the Bolognese tradition. Ringeck states it is most efficient when done on the left but that it could be executed on both sides. In Lecküchner (1488) and Meÿer the blade is more vertical than oriented to the back while still staying on the side.

O

Ort, n, masc. Listen The point (of a sword blade).

Oberhau, n, masc. Listen The strike from above.

Ochs, T, masc. Listen The Ox guard.

P

Pruch, masc. Listen See Bruch.

Preussen (Nicklass), N. One of four co-authors of a short section on the Longsword in Codex Döbringer.

Paurenfeyndt, Paurñfeyndt (Andre, Andreas), N. Listen A fencing master from Vienna (turn of the XVIth century), author of the Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Grounds of the knightly art of fencing) in 1516. This treatise was translated into French in 1538.

Pfauenschwanz, T, masc. Listen The Peacock's tail. Technique from Codex Döbringer where the sword is rotated around the opponent's sword, until an opening is found, so that from the opponent's point of view, the region swept by your sword looks like a peacock's tail.

Pfobenczagel, T, masc. [Döbringer] See Pfauenschwanz.

Pflug, T, masc. Listen The Plough ward.

Parierhaken, n, fem. Listen The "parrying hook", a secondary guard between the main section of the blade, and the ricasso of some zweihänder. This increases the protection of the hand when the sword is used as a pike.

R

Rossfechten, n, neut. Listen Fencing on horse.

Ringeck (Sigmund Schining ein), N. Listen A German fencing master probably originating from Southwestern Germany. Nothing much is known about him. He probably lived at the end of the XIVth century and maybe into the XVth century, and was competent enough to be quoted in Paulus Kal's 1470 list of masters from the Society of Lichtenauer (Gesellschaft Lichtenauers).

Ringen, v. Listen To grapple.

S

Sutor (Jakob), N. Listen An author of a late treatise on German rapier and longsword fencing (1612), the New Kůnstliches Fechtbuch. The treatise does not add much to the existing theory, but it is interesting from an historical point of view, as its figure show fencers in early XVIIth gear with XIVth century weapoins. This confirms that this kind of outdated fencing was perpetuated as a tradition in a courtly environment.

Schilt, n, masc. Listen Old way of writing the word Schild (schield). The guard [Ringeck]. A synonym of Gehiltz.

Stück, n, masc. Listen The piece, the technique.

Scheitelhau, T, masc. Listen The Vertex strike. Der Scheitel: the vertex, the peak, but also the top of the head, as in expressions like "vom Scheitel bis zur Sohle" (from top to toe).

Schnitt, n, masc. Listen The slice. One of the three Wonders (Wunder). Der langen Schnitt: the long slice, the true edge, that is, the edge on the ground side when one strikes an Oberhau. Der kurtzen Schnitt: the short edge, the false edge, the edge facing the sky during an Oberhau.

Sprechfenster, T, neut. Listen The Speaking Window.

Schwert, Svert, n, neut. Listen The sword.

Schwertnehmen, n, neut. Listen The sword-taking, a generic term for a technique where one takes away their opponent's sword.

Starck, n, masc. Listen The strong of the blade, that is, about the third of the blade closest to the guard.

Starck, a. Listen Generic adjective: strong.

Schwech, N, masc. Listen The weak, the foible: about the third of the blade nearest to the point.

Sturzhau, T, masc. Listen [Döbringer] The plunging strike.

Schielhau, T, masc. Listen The squinting strike.

Schlagen, v. Listen To strike.

Schnappen, v. Listen To snatch. A generic term for a technique where the opponent's blade is caught and secured (with one's elbow or sword grip), typically right before grappling.

Stich, n, masc. Listen A stab.

Schnitt, n, masc. Listen A cut.

T

Twerhau, T, masc. Listen See Zwerchau.

Talhoffer (Hans), N. Listen A German fencing master (ca. 1410/1415-after 1482), author of the Talhoffer Fechtbuch, which exists in several versions. This book shows longsword fencing (with and without armour), various techniques of judicial duel with a great variety of weapons, as well as a section on siege weapons and other devices taken from Keyser's Belifortis. It is possible that Hans Talhoffer was a member, or even a founding member of the brotherhood of Saint-Mark (Marxbrüder), indeed, his personal crest contains the lion of Saint Mark.

U

Unterhau, n, masc. Listen A strike coming from below.

Umschlagen, v. Listen To change, to revert [leo]. To hit the other side of your opponent after a first strike. [higgins]

überlaufen, v. Listen Lit. to walk or run over. To use the geometrical advantage of distance given by a blade held horizontally, as opposed to a blade held with its tip to the ground. Scheitelhau used against Alber is a kind of überlaufen.

V

Versetzen, verseczen. Listen Lit. the displacement, the off-setting: a parry. Meÿer (chapter 5, 1570 edition) says there are two kinds of parries: the first, which should be avoided if possible, where you protect yourself from damage by putting your sword against an incoming blow and step backwards with the foot on the attacked side; the second, praised by the masters of old, where you strike against an incoming strike, ideally wounding the opponent at the same time as you protect yourself.

Vor, N, masc. Listen The Before. One of the tempi of German fencing, where one has the initiative of attack.

Vom Tag, T. Listen The Guard of the Day (der Tag: the day), or the Guard of the Roof (das Dach).

W

Winden, Wenden, T, neut. Listen The winding. This word is cognate to the English word "to wind", for which the Merriam Webster dictionary gives ample current and archaic definitions: "to entangle", "to cause to change direction", "to lead a person as one wishes". In German the meaning is almost similar. Winden is used during the bind (Binden): it consists in controlling your opponents' blade by using the strong of the blade against the weak of his, while keeping the tip of the blade aimed at his head or chest, and then to stab. Now, if the opponents reacts to this, the struggle to keep the bind and the control ensues in the entanglement which is evoked by "Winden".

Wunder, die drei (drey) Wunder, T, fem. Listen The "three wonders" or "the three wounders" (the German word means both, giving birth to a pun which the old masters certainly revelled in). These are the three basic ways to hurt your opponent: the hew (Hau), the stab (Stich), the slice (Schnitt). Joachim Meÿer does not speak about the three wonders but also mentions a "trinity" of hits: the strike given with the strong edge, the strike given with the false edge, the strike given with the flat (chapter 10, 1570 edition): "Dieweil aber das Schwerdt oder dein schwerdts klingen / im herführen zum hauwen fürnemlich auff dreyerley weiß antreffen und rühren mag / als erstlich mit Langer davon jetzt gelert / demnach mit kurtzer / und letzlichen mit der flech."

Wallerstein (Codex), N. Listen A treatise in three parts from anonymous authors which was collated by Paulus Hector Mair. The first section is about longsword, messer and dagger, the second is about grappling. These two first sections seem to stem from an independent fencing tradition from the region of Nüremberg and date from about 1470. The last section is much older, dating back to the early 1400s, and is part of the Gladiatoria tradition.

Werkemeister, T, masc. Listen The head-workman. [Döbringer] .

Y

Ysenport, die ysni Port, fem. Listen See Eisenport.

Z

Zornhau, T, masc. Listen The Wrath hew.

Zornhau Ort, T, fem. Listen A variant of Zornhau where the point of the blade is held at the opponent's head or chest to stab, after the Zornhau was done.

Zornhut, T, fem. Listen The Wrath guard.

Zweihänder, n, fem. Listen A sword held with both hands (hence its name, the "two-hander", longer than a Langschwert, it sometimes had a secondary guard (Parierhacke) at the ricasso. The sword is analogous to the iberic "montante" or the italian "spadone".

Zwerchau, Twerhau, T, masc. Listen The transverse strike, the thwart hew. One of the master strikes. Note the linguistic evolution: Zwer which gave Twer (cognate to English: athwart, thwart) and then Quer (modern German: transverse).

Zeck, masc. Listen A harassing strike [Tetraptych]. Synonym of Zeckrühr.

Zufechten, T, neut. Listen Defined by Meÿer as the first of three phases of a fencing pass, when the two opponents reach the strike range. The other two phases are the Handtarbeit ("the handwork") and the Abzug (the retreat).

Zucken, v. Listen To twitch, to jerk. During the bind (Binden), take back the blade towards you along the flat of your opponent's blade, and take it back along the other flat to hit. In modern fencing: a coupé.

Zeckrühren (-), Zeckrure, neut. Listen A harassing strike [Tetraptych]. Synonym of Zeck.

Zettel, n, masc. Listen The Epitome, the Markverse. A "Zettel" is a note on a little piece of paper. This is the short and obscure text in verse by Johannes Lichtenauer, from which only second hand copies are known, and which is the basis of the main German fencing tradition.

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